Some Venezuelans, alarmed by Maduro's measures, speed up plans to flee

Some Venezuelans, alarmed by Maduro’s measures, speed up plans to flee


CARACAS/PUNTO FIJO, Venezuela (Reuters) – Carpenter Jose Narvaez had planned to flee Venezuela and emigrate to the nearby Caribbean island of Aruba toward the end of the year, until Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro unveiled his plan to turn around the crumbling economy.

FILE PHOTO: A Venezuelan migrant waits in line to register her entry into Ecuador at the Rumichaca International Bridge in Tulcan, Ecuador, August 19, 2018. REUTERS/Luisa Gonzalez/File Photo

Now the 43-year-old Narvaez wants to leave as fast as he can.

Maduro on Friday stunned the South American nation by announcing a 96 percent devaluation and vowing to peg the bolivar currency to Venezuela’s new ‘petro’, a cryptocurrency that experts have cast doubt on as a functional financial instrument.

“I am looking for flights to leave on Wednesday, any way I can,” Narvaez said in Venezuela’s western oil hub of Punto Fijo, home to massive but deteriorated oil refineries. “I am sure this is going to get worse because the man’s ideas lack all logic.”

Maduro, who argues that he is the victim of a Washington-led “economic war” designed to sabotage his administration through sanctions, said that using the petro will abolish the “tyranny” of the dollar and lead to an economic rebirth in Venezuela, an OPEC member state home to the world’s biggest crude oil reserves.

But many Venezuelans fear the measures – whose details have not been explained – could render the country even more anarchic, and say they will join the exodus.

As the once-wealthy nation has slid into poverty, hundreds of thousands have already decided to leave.

FILE PHOTO: Venezuelan migrants take refuge inside the building of the International Center of Border Services on the Rumichaca International Bridge, in Tulcan, Ecuador August 18, 2018. Picture taken August 18, 2018. REUTERS/Luisa Gonzalez/File Photo

With the International Monetary Fund forecasting that inflation could reach 1 million percent by the year’s end, malnutrition is on the rise, as a monthly minimum wage that amounts to a few U.S. dollars puts simple products like chicken out of reach for many. Families forage through garbage, parents skip meals to let their children eat, and adolescents clamber up trees to pluck mangoes.

The United Nations estimates around 2.3 million Venezuelans now live abroad – with 1.6 million having fled in the last two and half years alone, the biggest movement of people in Latin America’s modern history.

That contrasts sharply with the twentieth century, when a booming Venezuela accepted immigrants from southern Europe, the Middle East, and neighboring war-torn Colombia.

In the capital Caracas, streets were quiet on Monday. Maduro had decreed a national holiday for the first day of a plan that will slash five zeros from prices in a bid to tame hyperinflation, as part of his economic package.

Information technology worker Keila Leiba said she had planned to emigrate to Mexico by early 2019 but Maduro’s announcements had led her to bring forward her plans.

“I’m thinking short-term now. I may change my plans to leave within a month or a month-and-a-half,” said Leiba, as she queued to submit paperwork for a coveted Spanish passport.

“I don’t see any opportunities here, nothing. You work, work, work, and … you don’t have access to the most important thing: Food.”

Slideshow (2 Images)

TURNING TIDE IN SOUTH AMERICA

Many Latin American governments initially welcomed the migrants with open arms, remembering Venezuela’s role in welcoming those fleeing dictatorships and conflict in the past.

But the exodus has ballooned this year, stretching social services, creating more competition for low-skilled jobs, and stoking fears of crime. The sight of Venezuelans begging on street corners in cities such as Colombian capital Bogota and Ecuador’s Quito is becoming increasingly common.

In the last week, both Ecuador and Peru have announced tighter entry requirements for Venezuelans, while in Brazil rioting locals drove hundreds of migrants back over the border.

Speaking in a plaza in Caracas, sports teacher Maritza Hernandez, 60, said: “We accepted everyone here. They should give us an opportunity.”

One of her sons is in Chile; the other plans to emigrate there at the end of this year. Hernandez said she was hoping to follow suit in 2019.

For many in Venezuela, the issue is now how to afford a move.

“If it just depended on me, I would leave today,” said restaurant worker Aries Armas, 21, who said she did not have enough money.

“The influx of Venezuelans must be affecting countries, but if you want to leave now: where can you go?”

Reporting by Shaylim Castro and Mircely Guanipa,; Writing by Alexandra Ulmer; Editing by Daniel Flynn and Rosalba O’Brien



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Exclusive: Trump does not anticipate much from China trade talks this week

Exclusive: Trump does not anticipate much from China trade talks this week


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump does not expect much progress from trade talks with China this week in Washington, he told Reuters on Monday.

U.S. President Donald Trump listens to a question during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Trump said in an interview that he had “no time frame” for ending the trade dispute with China. “I’m like them, I have a long horizon,” he added.

The talks this week come as new U.S. tariffs on $16 billion of Chinese goods take effect, along with retaliatory tariffs from Beijing on an equal amount of U.S. goods. The U.S. Trade Representative’s Office also is holding hearings this week on proposals for tariffs on a further $200 billion of Chinese goods.

Trump said Chinese negotiators would be arriving shortly, adding he did not “anticipate much” from the mid-level discussions.

Reporting Jeff Mason and Steve Holland; Writing by Peter Henderson; Editing by James Dalgleish



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Exclusive: Trump says 'most likely' to meet North Korea's Kim again

Exclusive: Trump says ‘most likely’ to meet North Korea’s Kim again


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump said on Monday he would “most likely” meet again with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, while defending his efforts to convince Pyongyang to give up its nuclear weapons.

U.S. President Donald Trump answers question from Reuters reporters Steve Holland, Jeff Mason and James Oliphant as White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders listens during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

In an interview with Reuters, Trump, who held a landmark summit with Kim on June 12, said he believed North Korea had taken specific steps toward denuclearization, despite widespread doubts about Kim’s willingness to abandon his arsenal.

While insisting that “a lot of good things are happening” with North Korea, Trump complained that China was not helping as much as it had in the past because of its trade dispute with the United States.

Trump, who faced the North Korean challenge as soon as he took office in January 2017, said he had only been working on the North Korean issue for three months whereas his predecessors had been working on it for 30 years.

“I stopped (North Korea’s) nuclear testing. I stopped (North Korea’s) missile testing. Japan is thrilled. What’s going to happen? Who knows? We’re going to see,” he said.

At their summit in Singapore, Kim agreed in broad terms to work toward denuclearization of the Korean peninsula but North Korea has given no indication it is willing to give up its weapons unilaterally as the Trump administration has demanded.

Trump has hailed the Singapore summit as a success and went as far as saying North Korea no longer posed a nuclear threat.

In the interview, Trump credited his “great chemistry” with Kim for easing a nuclear standoff that last year raised fears of a new Korean war.

“I like him. He likes me,” he said. “There’s no ballistic missiles going up, there’s a lot of silence … I have very good personal relations with Chairman Kim, and I think that’s what holds it together.”

Asked whether another meeting with Kim was on the horizon, Trump said: “It’s most likely we will, but I just don’t want to comment.” But he offered no details on the timing or venue.

Critics say Trump made too many concessions to Kim by agreeing to hold the summit in the first place and then suspending joint U.S.-South Korea military drills while gaining little in return.

Asked whether North Korea had taken specific steps to denuclearize other than blowing up its main nuclear bomb test site ahead of the summit, Trump: “I do believe they have.” But he did not elaborate.

He also pointed to North Korea’s pre-summit handover of three American detainees.

Writing by Matt Spetalnick and David Brunnstrom; Editing by James Dalgleish



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Exclusive: Trump says it is 'dangerous' for Twitter, Facebook to ban accounts

Exclusive: Trump says it is ‘dangerous’ for Twitter, Facebook to ban accounts


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump said on Monday that it is “very dangerous” for social media companies like Twitter Inc (TWTR.N) and Facebook Inc (FB.O) to silence voices on their services.

U.S. President Donald Trump answers a reporter’s question as eight different phones and recording devices placed on his desk by reporters and White House staff members record his words during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Trump’s comments in an interview with Reuters come as the social media industry faces mounting scrutiny from Congress to police foreign propaganda.

Trump previously criticized the social media industry on Aug. 18, claiming without evidence in a series of tweets that unnamed companies were “totally discriminating against Republican/Conservative voices.” In the same post, Trump said “too many voices are being destroyed, some good & some bad.”

Those tweets followed actions taken by Apple Inc (AAPL.O), Alphabet Inc’s (GOOGL.O) YouTube and Facebook to remove some content posted by Infowars, a website run by conspiracy theorist Alex Jones. Jones’ own Twitter account was temporarily suspended on Aug. 15.

“I won’t mention names but when they take certain people off of Twitter or Facebook and they’re making that decision, that is really a dangerous thing because that could be you tomorrow,” said Trump.

Trump appeared on a show produced by Infowars, hosted by Jones, in December 2015 while campaigning for the White House.

Trump has made his Twitter account – with more than 53 million followers – an integral and controversial part of his presidency, using it to promote his agenda, announce policy and attack critics.

Reporting by Steve Holland and Jeff Mason; Writing by Christopher Bing; Editing by Lisa Shumaker



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Instant View: Trump takes Fed to task for rate hikes in Reuters interview

Instant View: Trump takes Fed to task for rate hikes in Reuters interview


(Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump said on Monday he was “not thrilled” with Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell for raising interest rates and accused China and Europe of manipulating their respective currencies.

FILE PHOTO: U.S. President Donald Trump listens to a question during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

COMMENTS:

JOHN CANAVAN, MARKET STRATEGIST, STONE & MCCARTHY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, NEW YORK:

“This is helping Treasury prices to go out at the highs late today. The overall market reaction is muted given the late summer trading volume. Still they should provide some support for overseas trading. This should push U.S. five-year and 10-year yields to go below levels which have held since June. Bond futures prices are testing best levels since June after these comments from President Trump. I don’t think they will shape rate expectations very much. I don’t think the Fed and Chairman (Jerome) Powell will be susceptible to be pushed around by Trump’s comments. They are not new or surprised because Trump has said he’s a ‘low-rate’ guy.”

GUY LEBAS, CHIEF FIXED INCOME STRATEGIST, JANNEY MONTGOMERY SCOTT, PHILADELPHIA:

“It certainly breaks a few norms for a sitting President to not only comment publicly on past Fed action, but also on potential future action as well. I doubt these comments move the needle for Powell and his colleagues, but it certainly sends a strong signal to those candidates interested in vying for one of the Fed Board’s many open seats: favor easy money policy or find another job.”

MARK GRANT, MANAGING DIRECTOR AND CHIEF GLOBAL STRATEGIST AT B. RILEY FBR, INC, FT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: 

“In the first place, both the President and Congress, by passing the tax cuts and jobs bill, as one example, are trying to grow the economy. By almost any matrix that can be used, they are succeeding.

“The Fed keeps calling for raising rates in a return to ‘normalcy.’ I would argue, with all of the central bank intervention, here and abroad, that there was been no ‘normalcy’ for almost a decade. There is no good reason, in my view, to raise rates based upon some academic theory of normalcy.

“Raising rates just slows the economy down. So what we have here is the president and the Congress trying to expand the economy while the central bank of the United States is going in exactly the opposite direction.

“My other comment would be that the Fed, while an independent institution, is also America’s central bank and that the president, any president, of either party, has the right, if not the obligation, to question what they are doing as a matter of policy.

“Remember, the Fed was created by an Act of Congress in 1913, The Federal Reserve Act. It is an independent institution, by design, but it is also part of the government of the United States.”

ANDREW BRENNER, NATALLIANCE SECURITIES:

“While minor, we believe the President’s interview was part of the reason Treasuries went out at the highs.

“If Trump had good information he would focus more on the unwind of the (Federal Reserve’s) balance sheet, as the raising of short rates twice this year has not risen long rates, and they are actually lower in yield from the … first raise of the year.”

MARKET REACTION:

STOCKS – The S&P 500 .SPX pulled back from a session high just before the 4 p.m. close following the news. The index closed up 0.24 percent.

TREASURIES – Yields moved up fractionally to close near the day’s high. The 10-year note yield US10YT=RR ended the session near 2.82 percent, down 5.4 basis points from Friday’s close.

CURRENCIES – The dollar index .DXY dropped to the day’s low, ending 0.33 percent weaker for the session.

Americas Economics and Markets Desk; +1-646 223-6300



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Shares climb on hopes for U.S.-China trade talks, Turkish lira falls

U.S.-China trade talks optimism lifts shares, oil gains


NEW YORK (Reuters) – A gauge of global equity markets rose on Monday on hopes U.S.-China trade talks this week will diffuse the dispute, while Turkey’s lira fell anew on cuts to the country’s credit ratings and after shots were fired outside the U.S. Embassy in Ankara.

FILE PHOTO: A trader sits in front of the computer screens at his desk at the Frankfurt stock exchange, Germany, June 29, 2015. REUTERS/Ralph Orlowski/File Photo

Wall Street rose and broad-based gains in Europe and Asia lifted the MSCI’s all-country world index, which tracks shares in 47 countries. The gauge has recouped last week’s losses, but not declines of the prior week when the Turkish currency began its descent.

The dollar index fell on a report that U.S. President Donald Trump had told donors he was unhappy with the Fed’s interest rate hikes. The greenback fell further in late trading and the S&P 500 pulled back from a session high after Trump told Reuters in an interview he was “not thrilled” with Fed Chairman Jerome Powell for raising rates.

Trump also accused China and Europe of manipulating their currencies.

Trump, who nominated Powell last year to replace former Fed Chair Janet Yellen, told Reuters in an interview that he believed the U.S. central bank should be more accommodating.

“I’m not thrilled with his raising of interest rates, no. I’m not thrilled,” Trump said in the interview.

In part of the interview that was published after Wall Street closed, Trump said he did not anticipate much coming from the U.S.-China talks.

Mid-level U.S. and Chinese officials are expected to meet this week in Washington to discuss trade. It was unclear whether the talks will affect tariffs.

“It doesn’t necessarily guarantee that there will be an immediate resolution,” said Adam Phillips, director of portfolio strategy at EP Wealth Advisors in Torrance, California. “But it’s certainly a positive development, and it’s certainly something investors are focusing on.”

Six days of public hearings on proposed U.S. duties of up to 25 percent will start Monday in Washington, as the Trump administration tries to pressure Beijing for sweeping changes to trade and economic policies.

Tencent Holdings Ltd was the top gainer on Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index, closing up 4.1 percent. It was the biggest contributor to MSCI’s global stock gauge, which rose 0.53 percent.

The pan-European FTSEurofirst 300 index closed up 0.57 percent and MSCI’s emerging markets index gained 1.18 percent.

On Wall Street, easing concerns over trade helped lift oil and metal prices. The S&P 500 energy sector rose 0.66 percent, and the materials sector was up 0.71 percent. [O/R] [MET/L]

The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 89.37 points, or 0.35 percent, to 25,758.69. The S&P 500 gained 6.92 points, or 0.24 percent, to 2,857.05 and the Nasdaq Composite added 4.68 points, or 0.06 percent, to 7,821.01.

Turkey’s lira fell 3.2 percent to a session low of 6.2 against the dollar and then pared losses to trade 1.25 percent down at 6.0851.

While the lira late last week clawed back sizable losses, it remains down 24.6 percent so far in August.

Turkish sovereign dollar bonds fell across the curve on Monday and the cost of insuring exposure to Turkish debt rose. On Friday, Moody’s and S&P Global lowered their sovereign credit ratings.

Shots were fired at the U.S. Embassy in Ankara, compounding U.S.-Turkish tensions as a dispute over Turkey’s detention of an American pastor simmered.

CENTRAL BANKS IN SPOTLIGHT

In a week light on economic data, investors are turning their attention to central banks.

The Fed on Wednesday will release minutes from its August policy meeting. Investors will scrutinize them for signs about the interest rate outlook.The U.S. central bank is widely expected to raise rates a third time in September, though some analysts doubt a fourth hike will come in December.

Powell is due to speak on Friday at the annual economic symposium in August in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

“It’s really going to be all about the minutes and Powell at Jackson Hole on Friday,” said Thomas Simons, a money market economist at Jefferies in New York.

The dollar index, which tracks the greenback against a basket of currencies, fell 0.29 percent.

The euro rose 0.34 percent to $1.1476 and the Japanese yen strengthened 0.33 percent at 110.15 per dollar.

Benchmark U.S. Treasury 10-year notes rose 14/32 in price to push yields down to 2.8208 percent, a six-week low.

Oil futures rose after weeks of declines as investors grew more concerned about an expected fall in supply from Iran.

Brent crude futures rose 38 cents to settle at $72.21 a barrel while U.S. crude settle 52 cents higher at $66.43 per barrel.

U.S. gold futures for December delivery settled up$10.40 at $1,194.60 an ounce as a stronger Chinese currency made the metal cheaper for buyers in the world’s biggest gold consumer.

Reporting by Herbert Lash, additional reporting by Ritvik Carvalho in London; Editing by Nick Zieminski and David Gregorio



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Exclusive: Trump says does not anticipate much from China trade talks this week

Exclusive: Trump says does not anticipate much from China trade talks this week


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump does not expect much progress from trade talks with China this week in Washington, he told Reuters on Monday.

U.S. President Donald Trump listens to a question during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Trump in an interview said that he has “no time frame” for ending the trade dispute with China.

Reporting Jeff Mason and Steve Holland; writing by Peter Henderson; Editing by James Dalgleish



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Exclusive: Trump vows 'no concessions' with Turkey over detained U.S. pastor

Exclusive: Trump vows ‘no concessions’ with Turkey over detained U.S. pastor


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump on Monday ruled out making any concessions to Turkey to gain the freedom of a detained American pastor and said he was not concerned that retaliatory tariffs he imposed will have a ripple effect and hurt the European economy.

U.S. President Donald Trump answers a reporter’s question as eight different phones and recording devices placed on his desk by reporters and White House staff record his words during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Trump, speaking to Reuters in an Oval Office interview, said he thought he had a deal with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan when he helped persuade Israel to free a detained Turkish citizen. He had thought Erdogan would then release pastor Andrew Brunson.

“I think it’s very sad what Turkey is doing. I think they’re making a terrible mistake. There will be no concessions,” he said.

Trump has imposed tariffs on imports of Turkish steel and aluminum in response to Erdogan’s refusal to free Brunson, raising concerns of economic damage in Europe.

“I’m not concerned at all. I’m not concerned. This is the proper thing to do,” he said, when asked about the potential damage to other economies.

Trump said Erdogan had wanted the Turkish citizen returned from Israel.

Trump and Erdogan met in Brussels for a NATO summit in mid-July where they discussed Brunson’s case and what could be the way forward to release the pastor, a senior White House official said earlier.

Turkey had sought U.S. help to persuade the Israelis to release a Turkish woman who was being held in Israel, the senior official said. In exchange Turkey would release Brunson and other Americans being held in Turkey.

Trump said he kept his side of the bargain.

“I got that person out for him. I expect him to let this very innocent and wonderful man and great father and great Christian out of Turkey,” Trump said.

Israel, which confirmed that Trump had requested Ebru Ozkan’s release, deported her on July 15. Ankara has denied ever agreeing to free Brunson in return.

Trump added: “I like Turkey. I like the people of Turkey very much. Until now I had a very good relationship as you know with the president. I got along with him great. I had a very good relationship. But it can’t be a one-way street. It’s no longer a one-way street for the United States.”

Trump had suggested earlier this month he would be willing to meet Iranian President Hassan Rouhani if the Iranians wanted to discuss the dispute over Iran’s nuclear program.

The Iranians, including Supreme Leader Ali Khamanei, have shrugged off the offer. Asked to respond to Iran’s refusal to meet, Trump said it not matter to him whether they met or not.

Reporting By Steve Holland, Jeff Mason and James Oliphant, editing by Ross Colvin



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Wall St. higher on U.S.-China trade talk optimism

Wall St. rises on trade optimism, pares gains after Trump Fed comments


NEW YORK (Reuters) – Wall Street’s major indexes rose on Monday on optimism over trade talks between the United States and China, though they fell from session highs after President Donald Trump criticized the Federal Reserve’s raising interest rates.

Traders work on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in New York, U.S., August 17, 2018. REUTERS/Brendan McDermid

U.S. stocks moved lower in the last 10 minutes of the session after Trump, in an interview with Reuters, said he was “not thrilled” with Fed Chairman Jerome Powell and accused China and Europe of manipulating their respective currencies.

But stocks retained most of their gains from earlier in the day, as talks between the United States and China planned for later this week provided a boost to the trade-sensitive industrial sector .SPLRCI. Industrial stocks rose 0.6 percent.

The S&P 500 energy .SPNY and materials .SPLRCM indexes both rose 0.7 percent as easing trade concerns also helped lift prices of oil and metal. [O/R] [MET/L]

“What’s working are things that would benefit from any relief on the trade side,” said Keith Lerner, chief market strategist at SunTrust Advisory Services in Atlanta. “Industrials, materials and energy are all outperforming.”

The Dow Jones Industrial Average .DJI rose 89.37 points, or 0.35 percent, to 25,758.69, the S&P 500 .SPX gained 6.92 points, or 0.24 percent, to 2,857.05 and the Nasdaq Composite .IXIC added 4.68 points, or 0.06 percent, to 7,821.01.

This week, investors are turning their attention to central bank policies as the earnings season winds down.

The Federal Market Open Committee will release minutes from its August policy meeting on Wednesday. The minutes are expected to indicate the Fed’s confidence in U.S. economic growth and commitment to further interest rate increases.

Later in the week, Fed Chair Jerome Powell and other central bankers will meet in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. On their agenda is a discussion of the root causes of stubbornly low inflation, slow wage growth and weak productivity gains in the U.S. economy

Shares of Nike Inc (NKE.N) hit a record high of $82.42 after Piper Jaffray and Susquehanna raised their ratings on the stock. Nike shares ended the day up 3.0 percent at $82.18.

Intel Corp (INTC.O) shares dropped 1.3 percent after brokerage Cowen & Co said the chipmaker’s disclosure of new security bugs in some of its microprocessors may push cloud companies to seek other suppliers.

Estee Lauder (EL.N) rose 3.4 percent after topping quarterly profit and sales estimates as customers bought more of its high-margin Clinique and La Mer skin care products.

Advancing issues outnumbered declining ones on the NYSE by a 2.36-to-1 ratio; on Nasdaq, a 1.55-to-1 ratio favored advancers.

The S&P 500 posted 50 new 52-week highs and no new lows; the Nasdaq Composite recorded 114 new highs and 70 new lows.

Volume on U.S. exchanges was 5.31 billion shares, compared to the 6.53 billion average for the full session over the last 20 trading days.

Reporting by April Joyner; additional reporting by Shreyashi Sanyal in Bengaluru; Editing by Jonathan Oatis and Chizu Nomiyama



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Exclusive: Trump says 'dangerous' when companies like Twitter regulate own content

Exclusive: Trump says ‘dangerous’ when companies like Twitter regulate own content


WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump said on Monday that it is “very dangerous” for social media companies like Twitter Inc (TWTR.N) and Facebook Inc (FB.O) to regulate the content on their own platforms.

U.S. President Donald Trump answers a question during an interview with Reuters in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S. August 20, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Trump’s comments in an interview with Reuters come as the social media industry faces mounting scrutiny from Congress to police foreign propaganda.

Reporting by Steve Holland and Jeff Mason; Writing by Christopher Bing; Editing by Lisa Shumaker



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